Beyond environmental and UV assaults, there is an additional culprit that contributes to skin damaging oxidative stress: sugar. Excessive exposure of skin proteins to reducing sugars, such as glucose, can result in a non-enzymatic reaction called glycation. Glycation leads to a detrimental effect on the appearance and function of the skin. Collagen and elastin proteins, two major structural proteins of human tissue, are highly vulnerable to the glycation reaction, hence are subject to molecular changes when their free amino groups (lysine, arginine) come into contact with the carbonyl groups of reducing sugars within the body. This is also known as the early stage of glycation. Whereas the late stage of glycation involves complex irreversible oxidation, condensation and cyclization reactions which lead to the generation of damaging Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) via intra and intermolecular protein crosslinking. Elastin also suffers from AGEs, contributing further to skin dysfunction. Rosamax is the world-class natural antioxidant derived from Kemin’s proprietary rosemary. Initial studies showed that Rosamax provides powerful protection of oils and oil-containing personal care formulas against oxidation, as well as highly effective skin benefits due to its ability to quench UV-induced free radicals, also called Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS), which are responsible for oxidative stress damage. Kemin’s studies have shown that Rosamax is able to reduce UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines formation. (IL-6 and IL-8) for a soothing effect on skin and down-regulate matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) production allowing for healthy skin with protected collagen and elastic fibers. An in vitro assay Rosamax Z, in comparison with aminoguanidine demonstrates the effect of Rosamax in the reduction of AGEs; this product shows a stunning dose-dependent reduction of AGEs similar to aminoguanidine. Rosamax may therefore able to reduce the visible signs of aging such as skin thinning and sagging.